The application of turpentine and oil to the abdomen or joint, combined with moist heat.
- Relieves abdominal distention or gas pain.
- Relaxes bowel or intestinal spasms.
- Stimulates the peristaltic movements of the intestines.
- Relieves pain and congestion in the adjoining parts of the sprained ankle.
- Relieves pain due to intestinal colic.
- Promotes the absorption of serious effusions and exudates.
- Set of hot fomentations (see procedure for fomentation).
- Sheet or blanket to cover patient.
- One bath towel.
- Bottle containing turpentine and oil in the following mixture:
* 1 tablespoon turpentine to 8 tablespoons mineral oil for children
* 1 tablespoon turpentine to 6 tablespoons mineral oil for adults
– Put one tablespoon of turpentine in a bottle with cover and add 8 tablespoons of mineral oil, if used for children. For adults add only 6 tablespoons of mineral oil to one tablespoon of turpentine.
– Cover the bottle and shake the mixture thoroughly. Label the bottle with its proportion of turpentine and mineral oil. This mixture can be kept for future use. Keep bottle away from children.
5. Cream or lotion.
- Bring all things needed to the bedside including the mixture of oil and turpentine.
- Prepare the patient as for fomentation on the abdomen or ankle.
- Apply the oil and turpentine mixture with your finger tips to the area to be treated.
- Observe the skin very carefully to see if the patient is allergic to turpentine. If redness is noticed, discontinue the treatment. Wipe and remove the oil and turpentine mixture and apply cream on the skin.
- Cover the area with the dry towel and apply the hot fomentation over the area with the turpentine mixture. Fomentation pad should not be very hot.
- Give the three sets of fomentations. For abdominal distention teach patient to do addominal breathing. While the hot fomantation is still on the abdominal area, tell patient to do abdominal breathing. Breathe in slowly bringing the abdomen up on inspiration and down on expiration. Do this exercise a few times, with rest periods in between.
- After the last fomentation pad, remove hot towel and with the dry towel remove the oil from the skin.
- Apply cream or hand lotion over the skin area treated and bandage ( for sprained joint )
- If abdominal distention persists, repeat the treatment after two hours, unless contraindicated ( not advised).
- If patient is not relieved in spite of treatments, consult your physician immediately.
Precautions and Contraindications:
1. Do not use turpentine on patients who have kidney disease.
2. Do not give to patient allergic to turpentine.
3. If intestinal obstruction is suspected, never give any hot treatment but bring patient immediately to the nearest hospital.
* Symptoms of instestinal obstruction:
1. Severe abdominal pain
2. No intestinal activities.Listen with your ear against the abdominal wall if there are movements of the intestines.
3. Cannot pass out gas or stool.
4. Elderly patient and fair-complexioned individuals are more sensitive. Use mixture of oil and turpentine for children.
5. For a diabetic patient, use the children’s mixture.
6. Fomentation towels should not be very hot.
Inhalation of warm, moist air into the mucous membranes and respiratory tract.
1. Relieves inflammation and congestions of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract.
2. Relieves irritation (throat tickle) by moistening the air.
3. Loosens secretions and stimulates expectoration.
4. Relieves spasmodic breathing.
5. Relaxes muscles and thus relieves coughing.
6. Prevents excessive dryness of the mucous membranes.
1. Boiling water in a kettle with a spout. An empty juice can may serve the purpose.
2. Hot plate or gas stove or local stove using charcoal (“uling”).
3. Vicks Vaporub ointment or tincture of Benzoin or Camphor oil for good smelling sensation.
4. Old newspaper.
7. Paper bag.
1. Fill up kettle with water just below the level of the spout, and bring the water to boiling point. Add 1 tsp. of medication (Vicks or Benzoin) into the boiling water.
2. Carry the stove and the kettle with caution near the bedside of the patient, if the patient is unable to stand or sit on the chair.
3. If a croup tent is indicated, open an umbrella over the head of the patient and cover it with a sheet to form a tent.
4. With the newspaper make a cylindrical tube to direct the steam into the tent away from the patient’s face.
5. If the patient is able to sit on the chair, he may sit near the stove in the kitchen. With the cylindrical tube of paper the steam is directed into the patient’s face for inhalation.
6. Treatment time: 30 minutes to one hour, morning and evening, as tolerated.
1. Avoid all risks of burning.
2. Avoid drafts during time of treatment. Close windows near the patient.
3. Extra care must be observed when giving treatment to children and restless patients to avoid scalding.
An immersion bath in starchy water for a soothing effect.
1. Relieves skin irritation.
2. Soothes burning and itching sensations.
3. Tendency to dry skin.
1. Bath tub. For babies, big basin may be used.
2. Big drum or plastic water container for adults, big enough to soak the whole body.
3. Two glasses of starch or “gawgaw” for adult; 1/2 glass for babies and children.
4. One bath towel.
5. Face towel.
1. Fill up the tub 2/3 full with warm water. Water should be deep enough to immerse the affected areas. Use bath tub if whole body is affected.
2. Melt the starch in cold water in a small basin. Mix well the melted starch into the tub of water.
3. Undress the patient and assist him into the tub.
4. With the face towel, bathe the parts not immersed. Wet the head or hair if the scalp is affected. Immerse patient for 20 minutes, but do not rub him with the towel.
5. After 20 minutes, drain the water and pat dry the patient with the dry towel. Don’t give shower or rinse the starch. Don’t use soap even for washing hands, unless a specific soap is ordered by the physician.
6. Keep patient warm and avoid chilling.
7. Give daily bath or twice a day, depending upon the patient’s condition.
Letting hot salt solution roll in the throat for a few seconds.
1. Relieves throat congestions.
2. Relaxes throat muscles.
3. Reduces inflammation.
4. Relieves throat itchiness.
5. Relieves sore throat.
1. Two glasses of hot water.
2. One teaspoonful of salt—1/2 tsp. salt per glass of water.
3. One teaspoon.
1. Add 1/2 teaspoon of salt into a glass of hot water. Temperature should be as hot as can be tolerated for drinking. Stirwith teaspoon till salt is melted.
2. Salt gargle should be done in the bathroom sink.
3. Sip enough water and let it roll freely in the throat for a few seconds before spewing the water out into the sink.
4. Continue the procedure of throat gargle till all the 2 glasses of salt solution is consumed.
5. If sore throat is severe with harsh voice, salt gargle may be repeated every two hours when awake.
6. Throat gargle is best done after meals.
7. For best result, don’t drink cold drinks until sore throat is healed.
A local application of ice over a body segment.
1. Relieves pain.
2. Prevents or lessens black and blue discoloration due to capillary bleeding.
3. Stops bleeding specially if applied with pressure.
4. Prevents and reduces swelling.
5. Decreases blood flow to the area.
6. Constricts blood vessels, therefore decreases tendency to bleeding.
1. Two bath towels.
2. Two safety pins.
3. Finely crushed ice—amount depends on the size of area to be treated.
4. A piece of flannel cloth or a baby’s blanket.
5. A piece of plastic.
1. Spread the finely crushed ice on the bath towel, forming a layer about one inch thick. Adjust the surface area as needed for the affected part. Wrap the ice and secure it with safety pins.
2. Wrap the area or joint with the flannel cloth or towel and place the ice pack, following the contour of the area.
3. Never apply an ice pack directly on the skin. Cover the packed ice with plastic and secure carefully to prevent the bed from getting wet.
4. Treatment time: 30 minutes to one hour. If there is burning sensation during the ice pack application, the ice pack is not well insulated. Add insulator or add towel or flannel cloth.
5. To end treatment, remove the pack, dry the area and observe reaction. Treatment may be repeated after two hours in acute injuries to relieve pain and swelling.
6. Cover or bandage area to avoid chilling, specially in acute sprain ankles.
A partial immersion bath covering the pelvic and the anal areas.
1. Relieves pain after rectal operation.
2. Hastens healing and cleaning of the operated area.
3. Relieves cramps and spasms in pelvic region and urinary bladder.
4. Stimulates pelvic circulation.
5. Relaxes urinary bladder.
1. One large basin—deep enough for a person to sit in.
2. One smaller basin for the foot bath.
3. One small basin with ice or cold water and compress.
4. One towel, long enough to go around the head.
5. A sheet or blanket for wrapping around the body.
6. One bath towel.
7. One large kettle of boiling water.
8. One chair or stool.
1. Boil water in large kettle.
2. Put the large basin on the chair or on the floor, with small amount of hot water, hot enough for patient to sit in it.
3. Remove clothing, underwears and dressings if there are any. Drape with sheet or blanket.
4. Assist the patient to sit in the basin, placing the feet in the smaller basin of hot water.
5. Apply cold compress on the forehead and gradually add hot water to the sitz basin and the foot basin, increasing the water temperature to patient’s tolerance. Stir the water with the hand as you add the hot water. Be careful not to pour hot water on patient’s buttocks and feet.
6. Renew cold compress to the head as often as you can. Continue adding hot water for from 20 to 30 minutes.
7. At the end of the treatment, pour cold water to the sitz bath basin. Raise the feet and pour cold water to the feet and dry well.
8. Assist the patient out of the basin and give warm shower or sponge bath.
9. Let patient rest and keep warm after treatment.
Hot sitz bath is best done in the bathroom for the floor is likely to get wet.
A local immersion bath covering the feet, ankles and legs.
1. Relieves head, chest-and pelvic congestion by the drawing of blood from those areas to the legs and feet.
2. Stops nosebleed.
3. Relieves pain and spasms of the feet and legs.
4. Induces sweating in case of fever—lowers body temperature.
5. Relieves menstrual cramps by relaxing the uterine spasm.
6. Relieves headache.
7. Relaxes the whole day.
1. One kerosene can or plastic pail.
2. One small basin.
3. One large “kaserola” or kettle of boiling water.
4. Chair or stool.
5. Compress cloth or face towel.
6. Pitcher or dipper (“tabo”).
7. Old newspaper, if done in bed.
8. Bath towel.
9. One blanket.
1. Close windows and doors. If done in the bathroom, the patient should be seated on a chair. If the patient is too weak to sit, patient may lie down and be treated in bed.
2. Remove clothing of patient, and drape with blanket.
3. Assist patient’s feet into the pail or basin of water. Water is ankle deep to start with. Temperature should be as hot as can be tolerated.
4. Apply cold compress to the forehead or on the nape if compress is small.
5. Add hot water. In adding hot water to the foot tub, push the patient’s feet to one side and place your hand between the feet and the stream of water. Increase the water tempera ture to patient’s heat tolerance.
6. Continue adding hot water for 20-30 minutes, renewing cold compress every 2-3 minutes. Don’t let the water cool off.
7. At the end of the treatment lift feet from the water and pour cold water over them.
8. Give hot and cold shower if patient is strong. Give warm sponge bath if done in bed.
9. Dry patient and keep him comfortable. Let patient rest till he stops perspiring.
The application of heat to a small area with hot gauze or hot compress cloth.
- Increases circulation locally.
- Relieves pain.
- Relieves congestion.
- A basin of hot water (104°F), or as hot as can be tolerated.
- Gauze or compress cloth (face towel) or any clean piece of cloth.
- Solution as per order. May use boiled guava leaves in case of infected wound.
- Old newspaper for used dressings.
- Baby oil or cream (use only for eye compress).
- Boil water or guava leaves if compress is for infected wound.
- Apply baby oil on the forehead and eyelids if compress is to be applied on the eyes.
- Wring compress from hot water or hot solution. Partially twist the compress cloth holding it on both ends. Dip the compress into the hot water or solution and twist it lightly, pulling the two ends apart, thus squeezing the water out.
- Apply compress directly on the area to be treated without pressure.
- Compress must be changed frequently at least every 3 minutes. In case of infected wound, discard the used compress cloth or gauze. Use it only once. Do not dip the used compress the second time.
- Continue compress for 15-20 minutes, renewing it every 3 minutes. Keep the water or solution hot at all times during the treatment.
- At the end of treatment, remove hot compress and dry treated area.
- Apply medication or ointment as ordered by physician in cases of infected wound, boils and ulcers.
- Apply sterile dressing and keep dry.
Do not apply hot compress when there is tendency to bleed.
A mild, prolonged application of moist heat of several hours duration.
- Relaxes muscles.
- Relieves pain of throat or rheumatic joints.
- Relieves abdominal discomfort (use moist abdominal bandage).
- Reduces joint inflammation.
- A mild heating effect.
- A piece of cotton cloth, folded for moderate thickness, about two inches wide and long enough to wrap around the neck or joint twice. A lady’s hankie (small size and thin), folded lengthwise, will do, if to be applied on the throat.
- A piece of flannel cloth, about four inches wide and long enough to wrap about the joint or neck. A baby’s flannel blanket or diaper, folded lengthwise, will be just right for the knees.
- Two safety pins.
- If medicated compress is ordered, use the medication prescribed. Vicks Vaporub ointment may be used.
- Soak cloth with tap water. Wring and put around the neck or joint twice. Be sure the wet cloth is neither too wet to drip nor too dry. If medicated compress is applied, rub area with prescribed medication or ointment. Do not wet the cloth with water but wrap the cloth around the area dry after the medication is applied. (In applying a plain heating compress, wet cloth is applied without medication.)
- Apply compress smoothly and quickly to avoid chilling.
- With the piece of flannel cloth, wrap compress snugly to exclude air and pin securely on the side of the neck or joint.
- Leave compress on overnight or at least for 6-8 hours.
- Take care that the compress is not too tight so it does not interfere with circulation and joint movements.
- Rub the area with a cloth wrung out of cold water (tap water) immediately after removing the compress in the morning or after 6-8 hours.
- Dry the area thoroughly. Compress may be applied once or twice a day.
It is best to apply a heating compress at night just before retiring.
A local application of moist heat by means of cloth wrung from boiling water or from steam tank.
- Increases blood flow to the area.
- Relaxes muscles.
- Sedative effect, if applied on the spine.
- Relieves pain.
- Relaxes spasm or cramps.
- Relieves congestions.
- Produces sweating.
- At least five bath towels.
- A small basin of ice water.
- One washcloth or face towel for compress.
- One blanket or sheet to cover the patient.
- One kettle or “kaserola” for boiling water.
- Remove patient’s clothing and cover with sheet or blanket.
- Have basin of ice water and compress at bedside of the patient.
- Close windows near patient’s bed to avoid drafts.
- Cover area to be treated with one bath towel.
- Wring out one bath towel from boiling water.
- Spread the dry towel on the table and wrap the hot towel.
- Apply the hot towel to the body area to be treated, over the dry towel.
- Apply cold compress to the patient’s head. Change it three times during the application of each fomentation.
- Give three changes of hot fomentation, drying the treated area quickly between applications. Change fomentation every 5 minutes or till it gets warm or cool. Don’t wait till towel gets cold before removing it.
- Have hot towel ready before used hot towel is removed from the treated area.
- After the last fomentation, rub the area quickly with cold compress wrung from the ice water.
- Dry thoroughly and give sponge or warm bath if desired.
- Let patient rest after the treatment.
- Protect sensitive parts of the body like bony areas, and also recent scars. Very thin patients have more bony areas, only warm fomentation is recommended.
- In cases of severe pain, have fomentations as hot as could be tolerated without burning patient.3. If fomentation is unbearably hot, rub areas with the hand under the hot towel or double the towel insulator.
- Avoid chilling patient. If patient’s feet are cold wrap the feel with hot fomentations taking precautions not to burn the heels and toes.
- Take precautions with diabetic and unconscious patients. Children and elderly patients are sensitive to heat. They have poor sensation and are easily burned. Give only warm fomentations.